Date Of Execution: 7 Apr 1903
Crime Location: London
Execution Place: Wandsworth
Executioner: William Billington
Severino Klosowski was convicted of the murders of Maud Alice Marsh 19, Mary Isabella Spink 44 and Bessie Taylor 36 and was sentenced to death.
Severino Klosowski was commonly known as George Chapman.
He had poisoned them with emetic tartar, a form of antimony. He was a Pole, having been born in Warsaw in 1865 and had later assumed the name that he was generally known by, George Chapman.
He was caught when he poisoned Maud Marsh who had been living with him as his wife at the Crown pub which he ran in Borough High Street, Southwark in 1902.
Although it was accepted that he murder Elizabeth Spink and Bessie Taylor he was only tried for the murder of Maud Marsh for which he was convicted on 20 March 1903.
A particular characteristic of antimony is that it preserves the body and the bodies of his first two wives were notably preserved when they were exhumed.
The general chronology of events including Severino Klosowski's life are detailed below. It was noted that Severino Klosowski had kept a rough list of all the public houses that he had run.
Elizabeth Spink (Mary Isabella Spink) 44
Elizabeth Spink died on 25 December 1897 at the Prince of Wales public house in Bartholomew Square, London, which George Chapman was running at the time.
When her body was later exhumed it was found to contain antimony in all parts, with 3.83 grains of emetic tartar being found. It was noted that when her body was exhumed it had the colour and appearance of a newly-buried body with no trace of putrefaction, an effect of antimony.
Elizabeth Spink had been the wife of a railway porter on the Great Eastern Railway, her name at the time being Mary Isabella Rentoul. She had come from Yorkshire. However, both her and her husband were intemperate and in 1895 her husband left her taking his oldest son with him. Soon after Mary Spink gave birth to a son and then married Severino Klosowski. They were married according to Jewish law and Mary Spink was entitled to £570 under a legacy from her grandfather which was invested in a trustee, a Yorkshire solicitor.
After their marriage the trustee paid over the balance of the legacy and Severino Klosowski and Mary Spink went to Hastings where they set up a hair-dressing business.
Whilst they had lived in Hastings they had stayed at 10 Hill Street and after some time there set up a barber's shop in George Street.
Their landlady said that she had heard Elizabeth Spink cry out once or twice and that on one occassion she saw Elizabeth Spink the following morning and said that she showed her a mark on her throat.
She said that dring the latter part of their time in Hastings in 1896 that Elizabeth Spink had not been well and suffered from dreadful pains in her stomach. Their landlady said that she saw her vomit and said that it was a greenish colour.
It was noted that whilst in Hastings that Severino Klosowski was known to have purchased some tarter emetic from a chemist in the High Street.
It was noted that Severino Klosowski and Elizabeth Spink had later lived in Coburg Place in Hastings, moving in around February 1897 and that whilst they were there that a man that also lived there gave Severino Klosowski some volumes of 'Cassell's' Family Physician' to read for a time but the man said that he never got them back.
However, in August 1897 they return to London where they took over the Prince of Wales pub in Bartholomew Square in St Luke's, London. Shortly after Mary Spink was taken ill. Her symtoms included green vomit and diarrhoea. When people enquired about Mary Spink's health Severino Klosowski told them that she was suffering from delirium tremens.
It was noted that Severino Klosowski used to prepare Mary Spink's food himself and that when he gave it to her he ordered the nurse out of the room.
A woman who lived in Richmond Street, Bartholomew Square, St. Luke's said that she got to know Elizabeth Spink and Severino Klosowski after they took over the Prince of Wales beer house in Bartholomew Square in the autumn of 1897. She said that Elizabeth Spink was a nice little built person, with fresh colour and that she became friendly with her. However, she said that after they had been in the house about twelve months that she noticed that Elizabeth Spink was white and got very thin and told her that she had pains all over her and seemed to be getting worse.
She said that Severino Klosowski came to her about a fortnight before Christmas and asked her if she would go over and sit up with his wife at night as she was very ill and she said that she would. She said that when she went she found that there was no doctor there and asked Severino Klosowski whether she should fetch one and said that he asked her who was nearest and that she told him and the doctor was called.
She said that she sat every night with Elizabeth Spink, noting that she slept in a bed in the front room on the second floor whilst Severino Klosowski lay on the couch. She noted that whilst she was there that she was locked in.
She said that Elizabeth Spink suffered very much and vomited frequently and had pains all over her. She said that her vomit was dark brown. She noted that she gave Elizabeth Spink nothing during the night but said that after the doctor called that Severino Klosowski gave her brandy and medicine which he brought up with him at night and left on the table. She said that after Elizabeth Spink had the brandy that she vomited. She said that during the following day that Elizabeth Spink had diarrhoea very badly.
The woman said that she was only there the one night and that she told Severino Klosowski the following day that she could not do it any longer and he arranged for her to call in a nurse.
However, she said that she continued to see Elizabeth Spink in the day and said that towards Christmas that she got much worse with continued vomiting. She said that Elizabeth Spink continued to have only brandy and medicine at night and said that she complained to her about being thirsty and asked for drink which she said Severino Klosowski brought up.
She said that the nurse used to give Elizabeth Spink Liebig and noted that Elizabeth Spink didn't bring that up.
She said that when Severino Klosowski used to go up and see Elizabeth Spink that he used to lean over her and that once or twice he asked her to leave the room and that when she did she heard Elizabeth Spink say to him, 'Pray God, go away from me'.
She said that Elizabeth Spink got much worse on Christmas morning and became unconscious. She said that she had been vomiting very much and that a severe flooding came on. She said that she called out to Severino Klosowski but said that he did not come up for some time afterwards and that when he did come he only leant over the bed and then went into the next room. She said that before Elizabeth Spink died that she called out to Severino Klosowski again and said that as she died he leant over her and said, 'Polly, Polly, speak!'. She said that after Elizabeth Spink died that Severino Klosowski then went out of the room and cried.
She said that after Elizabeth Spink died, at about 1pm, that Severino Klosowski went downstairs and opened the house. She said that she then said to him, 'You are never going to open the house to-day?' and said that Severino Klosowski replied, 'Yes, I am'.
The nurse that was called in had lived in Windsor Terrace, City Road. She said that she occasionally went out nursing and knew the doctor that Severino Klosowski called in and said that the doctor asked her to attend to Elizabeth Spink at the Prince of Wales about a fortnight before she died. She said that when she first saw Severino Klosowski and made arrangements with him for the nursing he told her that Elizabeth Spink was wasting away but that he did not say what was the matter with her.
She said that when she saw Elizabeth Spink in bed she complained of bile and vomiting and violent pains in her stomach and said that she very often saw her vomit, noting that it was slimy and green, and that as she vomited she was purged. She added that Elizabeth Spink also had diarrhoea and did not take much food, only a little beef tea, brandy, milk and soda, and water which she said Severino Klosowski generally gave her.
She said that she did not know whether the milk was mixed with water or soda but said that after she had had the drink she was sick, and that she then used to go off in a stupor and gradually grew worse.
She said that when Severino Klosowski came into the room that he would go to the bedside and feel her pulse. She said that she told him that Elizabeth Spink was very bad, and asked him what was the matter but said that he didn't give her an answer although he told her that he knew.
She said that she was with Elizabeth Spink when she died and said that just before the end she had a severe flooding. She said that she felt her pulse once and found that it was very low, and that she could scarcely feel it. She said that when she saw that Elizabeth Spink was dying that she sent down for Severino Klosowski two or three times but that at first he did not come up. She said that when he did come up that Elizabeth Spink said to him, 'Do Has me' and put her arms out for him to bend over to kiss her, but said that he did not do so. She said that the last time she sent for Severino Klosowski just before Elizabeth Spink died that he did not come up in time.
The nurse said that she prepared Elizabeth Spink's body for burial noting that she was a mere skeleton. She said that she died on Christmas Day 1897 and that she did not go to the funeral although she said that she did go to St. Patrick's Cemetery at Leytonstone on 9 December 1902, where she had heard that she was buried.
She said that after Elizabeth Spink's body was exhuned she identified her body, noting that she had no difficulty in recognising it owing to its state of preservation. She said that when Elizabeth Spink was exhumed she looked as if she had only been buried about nine months and that the only difference was that her hair had grown a little longer on the forehead but said that her face was perfect.
A doctor that examined Elizabeth Spink's body after it was exhumed on 9 December 1902 said when the coffin was opened that he found the condition of her body to be altogether remarkable, noting that her face and head were those of a woman who might have been coffined that day from the appearance, stating that even her eyes were unruptured which he said was a very unusual circumstance and said that there was not the least difficulty in recognising her.
He said that her muscles had a fresh appearance and when he carried out a post mortem that he found all the parts of her body cut rather leathery, like shoe leather and were dryer than a fresh body would have been. He said that all the parts of her body except for her brain were preserved and that her stomach was unusually pink externally which was from the blood in the vessels being more than usually good. He said that it's inner coat was of a peculiar cinnabar red colour and that towards the bowel end there was a patch of black blood which had been effused.
He said that there was no sign of perforation or ulceration and no loss of substance in the mucus membrane and that towards the bowel end there were some old scars of years' standing. He said that her bowels were not ruptured and that the tube was intact. He said that internally the bowel had the same red colour as the stomach and that there was no ulceration. He said that her liver was pale but firm in texture and fairly normal and that her spleen, kidneys, bladder, heart, and lungs were all normal.
He said that there was no sign of phthisis which he said generally indicated disease of the lungs and gave her cause of death as being due to gastro-enteritis, noting that there was no other cause.
He noted that there was nothing to indicate that the woman had been a confirmed drunkard, observing that if she had had drank that it had not produced any serious injury to the kidneys or liver. He said that the inflammation that he found in the stomach was not attributed to alcohol.
He said that he then removed the stomach, the bowels, liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs, heart, brain, and some of the muscles, and submitted them all to analysis except the lungs and found that they all contained antimony stating that it had permeated to the muscle of the thigh. He gave the following measurements for certain organs:
Which he said made altogether 1.37 grain that would represent as emetic tartar 3.83 grains.
He said that there was more in her liver than he found in Maud Marsh's liver stating that that quantity pointed to a large amount of antimony having been absorbed into the body, and would indicate a considerable dose having been taken some hours before death or the continuous administration of small doses.
He later added that he was of the opinion that antimony given in gradual doses for a long time would be more likely to preserve a body than a sudden dose, stating that it would get more into the system.
He said that the purging and vomiting would have gotten rid of a good deal of the antimony and that he came to the conclusion that her cause of death was poisoning by antimony, and additionally attributed the preservation of her body to the antimony poisoning. He noted that it had not been thoroughly recognised that preservation was one of the effects of antimony, but noted that it had been found in previous cases to be a preservative.
He said that the fact that antimony was found in her muscles did not indicate that doses of antimony had been going on for some time itself as he thought that it would have quickly passed to every vascular part of the body.
The doctor additionally noted that he tested the earth round the coffin to see if it yielded any water and said that evidently her body had not been touched by water; and that the coffin and its contents had been well preserved.
He noted that the condition of preservation depended on the surroundings of the body quite apart from anything internal. He said that she had been buried in an elm coffin and that her grave was 18ft deep. He said that the depth of a grave to some extent helped to preserve the body, but said that if her body had begun to decay at the time it was buried, the depth of the grave would not have retarded it. He said that the air generally reached a body before it was buried. He noted that the soil was a very dry, clay and loam, which would have assisted the preservation and that it would have taken a few years for rain to get down 18ft. He noted that the grave was not a brick one and that there had been seven other coffins above hers and that her coffin was at the bottom.
He said that Elizabeth Spink's body was almost life-like and noted that bodies buried in lead coffins, when opened years afterwards, had similarly been found to be preserved to a wonderful degree, noting that in those cases the air had been excluded and observed that a wooden coffin would not be hermetically sealed. Additionally he noted that the other bodies removed from the grave had had a fearful smell about them, noting that they did not open any of the other coffins which he said were reverently put aside and a tarpaulin put over them. He added that the whole of them had been buried within a month.
He said that he did not analyse the lungs because he was told that Elizabeth Spink had died from phthisis, generally indicating a disease of the lungs, and that when he found no traces of phthisis he put them aside in case questions were asked. He said that if he had not known the history of Elizabeth Spink but was told that a certificate of death from phthisis had been given that he might possibly have found that consistent with her condition noting that when people died from phthisis there was generally great emaciation.
It was noted that after Mary Spink died on 25 December 1897 Severino Klosowski gave no information of her death to any of her relatives. Mary Spink was buried on 30 December 1897 at St. Patrick's Cemetery in Leytonstone.
Following her death Severino Klosowski put their son up for adoption with Dr Barnardo's Homes and it was noted that in the application he stated that the boy had no living relatives. However, Dr Barnardo's Homes refused to take the boy.
At the time Elizabeth Spink died the doctor that signed her death certificate gave her death as being due to phthisis. However, he had died by the time Mary Spink was exhumed.
It was heard that shortly after Elizabeth Spink's death Severino Klosowskitook steps to obtain assistance at the Prince of Wales, and from those who answered his advertisment he engaged Bessie Taylor.
Following Severino Klosowski's arrest the police searched the register of marriages at Somerset House from the' beginning of 1895 to 1897 but found no record between anybody named George Chapman and Mary Isabella Spink, or between Severino Klosowski and Mary Isabella Spink, or between Klosowski and anybody else.
Bessie Taylor 36
Bessie Taylor died on 13 February 1901 at the Monument public house at 135 Union Street, London.
When the pathologist later examined her remains he determined that she had 29.12 grains of tarter emetic in her stomach. When the amount was noted for being large the pathologist said that he could find no record of so large a quantity having been found in any previous case.
Bessie Taylor's parents lived in Cheshire but at the time she responded to Severino Klosowski's advertisment she had been in the restaurant business in Peckham. When she left that position she had said that it had been so that she could get married.
For the first part of the year Severino Klosowski and Bessie Taylor remained at the Prince of Wales public house but in August 1898 they took over the Grapes public house in Bishop's Stortford. However, in the beginning of the following hear, March 1899, they returned to London and took over the Monument public house at 135 Union Street, London.
It was said that sometime after they went to the Monument public house that Bessie Taylor started to become ill and whne she was seen by a doctor he found that she was suffering from uncontrollable vomit and diarrhoea. After that Bessie Taylor's mother came to nurse her and she seemed to get a little better but after a day or two she got worse and her vomiting was worse than ever and she died on 13 February 1901.
She was buried on 15 February 1901 at Lymm in Cheshire.
When the doctors exhumed her body on 22 November 1902 they found that her body was free from putrefaction and just as if she had been newly buried. There were no signs of disease about her body but there was evidence of gastro enteritis, as was the case with Mary Spink and in her entire body they found a total of 29.12 grains of emetic tarter.
Bessie Taylor's brother had lived in Lausanne Road, Hornsey and said that before she met Severino Klosowski she had been the manageress in some places in London with her last position being in Peckham. He said that he thought that Bessie Taylor had married Severino Klosowski in 1899 or 1900 and that when she introduced Severino Klosowski to him as her husband he thought that they were at the time living at the Prince of Wales. He said that he later heard that they had gone to Bishop's Stortford and then later to the Monument.
He said that when he heard that Bessie Taylor was ill that his mother came up from Cheshire and that after some conversation with her he went to see Bessie Taylor at the Monument. He said that he had not seen her for about three months and that when she had last called on him that she had been in good health and he presented a photograph of what she used to look like, noting that she looked strong and healthy, but said that when he saw her at the Monument she appeared to be very ill and shrunken and had become like a little old woman.
He said that when he saw her that she had violent pains in her inside and that she had been very sick.
He said that the next that he heard was on 13 February 1901 when he got a message from his mother saying that she had died.
He said that they met Severino Klosowski on 15 February 1901 at St. Pancras Station and that along with other family members they all went off to Lymn Churchyard in Cheshire, where Bessie Taylor was buried.
He added that he was also at the grave side when the coffin was exhumed in November 1902.
He said that he had ontl seen Bessie Taylor and Severino Klosowski together about six times but said that they seemed to be on good terms and said that Severino Klosowski treated her kindly and properly and that she seemed to be fond of him and that they appeared happy.
He said that following Bessie Taylor's death that Severino Klosowski behaved in every way that he would expect a man to who had just lost his wife.
A woman that had lived in Argyll Street, Oxford Street and worked aas a caretaker said that she had known Bessie Taylor for many years and remembered when she was in a situation in Peckham about Easter 1898 which she said she left to go and live at the Prince of Wales public house, adding that she understood that she had got married.
She saidd that she later saw her there along with Severino Klosowski and found that they were living as Mr and Mrs Chapman. She said that Bessie Taylor had been in good health at the time. She said that she next heard that they had gone to the Grapes at Bishop's Stortford and that shortly before Christmas 1898 went there to stay for a week or two.
She said that just before Christmas Bessie Taylor went into the local hospital as she had lumps on her face from her gums and that when she came out of the hospital after about a week and returned to the Grapes but said that Severino Klosowski was very unkind to her when she returned, saying that he carried on at her all the afternoon and that in the evening he frightened her with a revolver because he said she had been telling the customers that she was going into the hospital. She said that Bessie Taylor was not strong when she came out of the hospital but that she was better.
She said that she next heard of them at the Monument but said that Severino Klosowski was not kind to her there, saying that he was always carrying on at her. She said that Bessie Taylor seemed to be fading very much and complained of pains all over her and told her that her head was bad. She said that she got very thin and that towards the end of 1900 she visited her every evening. She said that Bessie Taylor always felt sick and that it always came on after she had had anything to eat or drink.
She said that Bessie Taylor was in bed and had pains in her stomach but did not know if she had diarrhoea. She said that when Severino Klosowski came into her room he felt her pulse with his watch in his hand and that after a time she saw medicine bottles in the room. She said that Severino Klosowski would shake them and then look up to the light through them. She said that she asked him what was the matter with her and said that Severino Klosowski said that there was a complication of diseases. She noted that when she went into the bar she would ask him how Bessie Taylor was and that sometimes he would say, 'Your friend is dead' and that she would then go upstairs and find her alive.
She said that she saw Bessie Taylor on 7 February 1903 at which time she seemed a bit brighter and went again on 14 February 1903 not knowing that she had died the day before. However, she said that when she saw Severino Klosowski and asked him about Bessie Taylor he told her that she was about the same. She said that the nurse then took her upstairs and told her something and that she then found that Bessie Taylor was dead. She noted that the house had been open when she went there.
A nurse that lived at 22 Fanshaw Avenue, Barking said that she had been a nurse for a number of years and that she used to live in Union Street, Borough. She said that two or three months before Christmas 1900 that she got to know Severino Klosowski and Bessie Taylor at the Monument. She said that when she first got to know Bessie Taylor that she seemed pretty well in health but said that later she began to complained to her about being fatigued, languid and having pains in her stomach and said that she suggested that she should go and see a doctor, recommending one and said that she went with her to his surgery more than once. She said that the dotor gave Bessie Taylor some medicine and said that she seemed to rally but not for long.
She said that she went to the Monument and nursed her about a week or ten days before Christmas, noting that she engaged her herself. She said that at first she only stayed during the day. She said that Bessie Taylor was vomiting and had diarrhoea and complained of great pain. She said that she also complained a little about her throat burning, which was very red and said that she noticed perspiration twice.
She said that when Bessie Taylor vomited it was severe, and green, thick, and slimy but noted that she did not complain of being thirsty, although added that when she did complain about being thirsty that she saw milk, water, brandy and water, and champagne given to her. She said that at first she was the only person there in the daytime but that Severino Klosowski used to come up and see her from time to time saying that he used to ask her how she was and sometimes held her hand in a friendly way.
She said that sometimes she prepared what nourishment Bessie Taylor had, sometimes her mother and sometimes Severino Klosowski.
However, she said that after a time she stayed there during the night as well as the day. She noted that Severino Klosowski had been there during the night until Bessie Taylor's mother came, and that he then went and slept in the parlour.
She said that she went back to her home in the daytime for an hour sometimes but said that Bessie Taylor did not go out very often although she sometimes took a walk, noting that she was sometimes better and sometimes worse. She said that one Sunday after Christmas she got up and went about the house, then sat down and played the piano in the clubroom adjoining her bedroom and that as she was playing the doctor who was attending her came in and put his finger up so that she should not interrupt her and then he said, 'Capital'. She said that Bessie Taylor then looked round and discovered him there. She said that she went home to sleep that night but said that she was sent for again on the Monday or Tuesday.
She said that Bessie Taylor seemed quite prostrated and said that she she went to bed directly she got there, saying that she seemed very tired and languid. She said that she did not complain of pain but did suffer from violent sickness and purging.
She said that she had been with Bessie Taylor on 13 February 1901 and said that about 1.30am she thought Bessie Taylor was dying and so she called Severino Klosowski who she said came up just as she was dying. She said that he looked at her and thought he said, 'Oh, she has gone' and then commenced to cry.
She said that she stopped a day or two in the house and that on 15 February 1901 Bessie Taylor's body was removed in a coffin to the railway station.
The doctor that was called out to attend to Bessie Taylor said that he was first called to the Monument on 1 January 1901. He said that he had first seen Severino Klosowski about a fortnight before that when he came to his surgery although he said that previous to that Bessie Taylor had called on him and asked for some medicine at which time he attended to her.
He said that he visited the Monoment public house almost daily from 1 January to 13 February 1901 when Bessie Taylor died.
He said that when he called Bessie Taylor had been in bed and had vomiting, had diarrhoea and had pains in her stomach which was very tender. He noted that the vomit was green but said that he could not recollect if he saw her vomiting. He said that he prescribed for her and that she used to get better and then go back again.
He said that he suggested another doctor being called in and said that he had three separate consultations with three other doctors, one being a specialist in the diseases of women but he only saw her once.
He said that he was under the impression that Bessie Taylor was suffering from some womb trouble. He said that he did not recall whether the specialist suggested any alteration in her treatment but said that she did not make any improvement.
He said that he then he then suggested another doctor and said that somebody in the house suggested a doctor from Southwark Bridge Road. He said that the third doctor came along and that they examined Bessie Taylor together and said that he thought that Bessie Taylor was suffering from a severe form of hysteria. He said that he then got a third doctor and said that they then examined Bessie Taylor together and said that the third doctor said that he thought that she was suffering from some cancerous disease of the stomach or intestines and said in consequence that he sent a portion of her vomit to the Clinical Research Association with directions to see if there was any trace of cancer, noting that that would have involved a microscopical examination of the sample, but said that they found no trace.
He said that the constant vomiting and diarrhoea continued more or less during the whole time that he was there. He said that he remembered going in one evening and finding Bessie Taylor playing the piano, stating that she appeared very much better, and said that in consequence he said I would not call back again unless I was sent for. However, he said that he was sent for the next day at which time he found her worse than ever.
He said that he was with Bessie Taylor the day before she died, noting that she had been very bad then with the same symptoms. He said that he did not recollect whether on that day he thought Bessie Taylor was dying or not but said that the next day after he heard of her death he was asked to give a certificate, which he did giving the cause of death as intestinal obstruction, vomiting, and exhaustion, noting that the intestinal obstruction would cause vomiting and exhaustion, observing that she had been suffering from vomiting and ordinary stoppage when she came to his surgery and said that diarrhoea would follow when the stoppage was cleared.
He noted that he did not put the particulars in the certificate, 'G. Chapman, widower of deceased' and said that he thought that Severino Klosowski was married to Bessie Taylor.
He added that he had never had such a thing as antimony in that period and had never prescribed it.
During the latter police investigation a detective sergeant said that he had searched the records at Somerset House between January 1898 and March 1900 but could find no record of a marriage between George Chapman and Bessie Taylor, or Severino Klosowski and Bessie Taylor.
Bessie Taylor's body was exhumed on 22 November 1902 at Lymn Churchyard. The grave had three coffins in it and Bessie Taylor's was the third coffin.
When the coffin was opened it was found that Bessie Taylor's body was covered with a mouldy growth but was otherwise fresh with no putrifaction and no odour.
A doctor that examined it said that the tissues were dry and that the muscles had a red and freshish appearance. He said that there was a faecal odour in the abdomen, but no putrifactive odour and said that although her features had mould on them one could follow the shape and general contour. He said that her breast was shrunken and the whole body dry and said that generally when bodies decomposed that they become wet and slimy and that Bessie Taylor's one was extremely well preserved except for the superficial skin mould.
He said that he made an examination of the various organs and on the base of the right lung he found some old adhesions from old pleurisy, noting that the lungs were shrunken and dry but otherwise healthy and free from deposits or cavities. He said that adhesions were quite common in people of good health in middle life and after. He said that her heart and its valves were healthy but that her stomach was empty, but its vessels were filled with dark blood to an unusual extent.
He said that on the inner surface of the gullet end of the stomach there was a patch about four inches in diameter of a cinnabar red colour that denoted gastritis but that there was no ulceration or perforation or any loss of substance in the mucus membrane of the stomach. He said that the cinnabar red colour extended more or less through the bowels, indicating enteritis and that the inner surface of the bowel was coated with a yellow paint-like stuff which was sulphide of antimony.
He said that the the pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and liver were all shrunken by time but otherwise normal and that the womb, ovaries, appendages and bladder were also quite normal and that he found no trace of cancer nor uterine trouble.
However, he said that he could find no sign of any cause of death.
He said that he examined the brain and although it was a good deal decomposed there was no sign of hemorrhage, or any recognisable disease.
He said that he found no intestinal obstruction and formed the opinion that Bessie Taylor had died from gastro-enteritis which was due to some irritant poison.
He said that he then removed the stomach, bowels, liver, spleen, kidneys, heart, brain, and lungs, and subjected them all to analysis and examination and said that the analysis showed that antimony was present in all those parts and that there was no other poison. He said that the organs contained the following:
He then stated that the total found was 10.49 grains which equaled 10½ which represented of tartar emetic in the stomach 0.32 grain, in the bowel 23.43 grains, in the liver 4.55 grains and in the kidneys 0.82. grain, making in all 29.12 grains.
He added that he could not find any recorded case of such a quantity having been found in the bowel after death and said that it suggested that she had had some large dose not long before her death.
The doctor also noted that he examined the earth about the coffin but found no poison.
Maud Marsh 19
Maud Marsh died on 22 October 1902 after being poisoned at the Crown public house in Borough High Street, London.
When her body was examined 20.12 grains of emetic tartar were found.
However, Maud Marsh's relatives that had attended her during her illness had become suspicious and had gone to the doctors to prior to Maud Marsh's death to inform them and after she died a post mortem was carried out that detected the poison.
Maud Marsh had advertised in August 1901 for a situation as a barmaid in the Morning Advertiser and had ten replies, one of which was from Severino Klosowski of 'The Monument' in Union Street which offered to pay for expenses whether engaged or not. She was then engaged by Severino Klosowski, who was known as George Chapman.
Maud Marsh went up to the situation soon after and she communicated with her mother soon after. Maud Marsh's father said that he went up to see Maud Marsh at the Monument and said that she told him that she liked the place very well. He said that he asked her whether she thought she suited and said that she did, saying that Severino Klosowski had told her that she did her work very well. He said that he also asked Severino Klosowski and said that he also told him that Maud Marsh did her work very well.
Maud Marsh's parents had lived at 14 Longfellow Road in Croydon.
Maud Marsh's father said that he visited Maud Marsh again about a fortnight later and said that Maud Marsh told him that Severino Klosowski had asked her how she would like to be called 'Mrs Chapman' and asked his opinion. Maud Marsh's father said that he thought that she had better wait and that it was too soon as she did not know the man and said that Maud Marsh agreed that she would.
Maud Marsh's father said that he didn't see Maud Marsh again for some time afterwards and that he next saw her at home when she called with Severino Klosowski. He said that he was not well at the time and that Maud Marsh told her that she was going to marry Severino Klosowski and said that he told her not to do anything underhand but to let him know. He added that that was all that occurred then.
He said that he next saw Maud Marsh whilst he was in Croydon Hospital on a Sunday. He said that his wife had written to Maud Marsh and told her that he was there but said that they didn't have much conversation in the hospital and that nothing about the marriage was discussed.
He said that he was in the hospital for about three weeks, first going in on a Friday with Maud Marsh visiting him on the following Sunday. He said that she came again about a week later and told him that he had married Severino Klosowski. He said that she first referred to it and then showed her a ring. He said that he then asked when she married and she told him Sunday, but did not say which Sunday. When he asked her where she got married she told him a Roman Catholic Room in Bishopsgate and when he asked her why she had not told him she told him that Severino Klosowski had not wanted to make a fuss about it.
However, Maud Marsh's father said that he did not think that she was married. He said that he asked her for the certificate and said that Maud Marsh told him that Severino Klosowski had got it locked up. He added that he asked her four times for the marriage certificate. He said that when Maud Marsh showed him the ring that only he and Maud Marsh were there and that Severino Klosowski had not been present.
Maud Marsh's father said that when he later came out of Croydon Hospital that Maud Marsh visited him at his home. He said that she came late at night and that Severino Klosowski came later on. He said that he had been going back into Croydon Hospital again the next day and that it had been the latter part of October 1901 that it happened. He said that Maud Marsh had come to see him before he went into hospital and that he saw her again whilst he was in hospital at which time she was quite well, which was in October 1901 and that he saw her on several occasions after that.
He said that he later saw Maud Marsh some weeks before she died in Guys Hospital. He said that she wrote to her mother and that his wife read the letter to him, noting that that was about two months before her death and that he had gone to see her on a Saturday about eight or nine weeks before her death. He said that she had been very ill and had pains in her stomach and retching and told him that she had inflammation of the inside.
He said that he later saw her on 18 October 1902 in bed at the Crown public house in Borough High Street between 6pm and 7pm at which time he said she complained again of pains in her stomach and retching. He said that he asked her what was causing it and said that she told him that she didn't know. He said that she also told him that she had had diarrhoea for several days. He said that he saw her alone on that occasion but noted that Severino Klosowski came into the room several times and that on each occasion he felt Maud Marsh's pulse at the wrist. He said that Severino Klosowski didn't have much conversation with him, but said that when he mentioned to him that Maud Marsh was bad, Severino Klosowski replied, 'Yes she was'.
He said that he asked Severino Klosowski for some water for Maud Marsh and that on more than one occasion he went out and brought her some. He said that Maud Marsh drank a little water but brought it up immediately. He said that it was discoloured when she brought it up and not clear, but said that he did not notice any particular colour or smell.
Maud Marsh's father said that the last time that he saw Maud Marsh was on Tuesday 21 October 1902 at the Crown public house in bed between 7pm and 8pm. He said that he stayed with her in the room for some time and that she was very ill. He noted that she did not look like she was dying and that he felt pleased with that and that he thought that she would get much better. He said that there was another person there whilst he was there looking after her but that he was alone with her for some time.
He said however, that she continued to vomit and to have a pain in her stomach whilst he was there. He said that she was thirsty and that when Severino Klosowski came in as he did several times that he told him.
He said that he went down to the bar and saw Severino Klosowski and said to him, 'Maude is very bad', and that he replied, 'Yes she is', but that that was all that passed. He said that it was getting late and that he and Severino Klosowski went up to see Maud Marsh and said that when they did he said to Severino Klosowski, 'I believe my daughter will get better now', but said that Severino Klosowski replied, 'She will never get up any more'. He said that he then turned to Severino Klosowski and asked 'Have you ever seen anyone else like it?' and said that Severino Klosowski replied, 'Yes'. He said that he then asked, 'Was your other wife like it?' and said that Severino Klosowski replied, 'Just about in the same way'.
Maud Marsh's father said that he then wished Maud Marsh good night but said that she didn't answer as she was too ill. He noted that the other woman that had been about had been present in Maud Marsh's bedroom all the time that he had been conversing with Severino Klosowski.
He said that he went home after that.
Maud Marsh's father said that on the morning of 21 October 1902, before going to see Maud Marsh that he had had suspicions that Maud Marsh had got foul play and had gone to see the doctor about it. He said that he knew that there was already a doctor attending Maud Marsh but said that he was not satisfied. He said that he was suspicious of Severino Klosowski 's conduct in feeling Maud Marsh's pulse each time he came in the room and getting water from out of the room.
He said that he went to a doctor at 282 London Road, Croydon on the morning of 21 October 1902 and told him that Maud Marsh was very ill and that he was not satisfied. He said that the doctor thought that he would let the original doctor know but he did not think that was enough and so the doctor said that would go and see Maud Marsh on the afternoon of 21 October 1902.
He said that the following morning, 22 October 1902, at about 10am, he went and saw the doctor alone in his surgery and said that the doctor told him 'Your daughter is very ill and I do not see why she should not get better if the sickness would stop. My opinion is your daughter has been poisoned by arsenic, but how she got it I could not tell'.
He said that later the same day in the afternoon he got a telegram from his wife telling him that Maud Marsh had passed away at 12.30pm, 22 October 1902.
He said that he then went to his doctor and showed him the telegram between 4pm and 5pm at his surgery. He said that his doctor told him that he was surprised as he could not see any symptoms of death when he saw her and that he had been surprised to have found her so strong when he saw her, noting that he had expected to have found her much weaker from what he had told him.
He noted that he had had an opportunity to see the terms that Maud Marsh and Severino Klosowski lived and said that Maud Marsh had never complained and had told him that she was comfortable and never complained of ill-treatment at any time. He said that during her illness that he and his wife saw Maud Marsh whenever they went there and said that she seemed to have all she required and seemed to have had every attention.
Maud Marsh's mother said that she lived at 14 Longfellow Road in West Croydon and that in February 1901 Maud Marsh had been living with her. She said that she looked after houses, the last being 63 St James Road, West Croydon. She said that when Maud Marsh was with her that she looked after the house called 'Outwood' in Sydenham Road. However, she said that in August 1901 that Maud Marsh had been out of employment for two months and told her that she would like to go behind the bar again, noting that she had learnt the business and said that she told her that she had better advertise which she did.
She advertised in August 1901 to do housework and to assist behind the bar and got about nine answers, one of which was from Severino Klosowski, who called himself George Chapman, of the Monument public house. She said that she thought that the answer was by post card. The response told her 'to call at Monument as soon as possible, fare paid engaged or not'. She said that the postcard was later burnt by Maud Marsh along with all the other replies.
She said that she and Maud Marsh went the same evening that the post card arrived, travelling by train to London Bridge sometime after 6pm. She said that they then walked to the Monument and saw Severino Klosowski and that she then informed him that she had brought her daughter, Maud Marsh, in answer to his post card regarding the situation.
She said that they then went into the parlour and Severino Klosowski asked Maud Marsh whether she had had been in that line of work before in the bar and said that Maud Marsh replied that she had a slight knowledge of it and that Severino Klosowski said that it was to do the housework and assist in the bar.
Maud Marsh's mother said that she then asked about the washing and said that Severino Klosowski told them that he had a woman in to do the washing and the rough work.
She said that when she asked what the wages were Severino Klosowski said 7/- a week to begin with.
Maud Marsh's mother noted that Maud Marsh had previously worked at the Duke of York in Canterbury Road in Croydon to mind the children and that whilst there she had helped in the bar and that that was how she had got the knowledge of bar work.
She said that Severino Klosowski asked about her last situation and about her character and they gave him the address of her last address at Hazeldene Court in Hazeldene Road, East Croydon where Maud Marsh had been a housemaid for ten months and said that Severino Klosowski told them that he would write and then let them know.
Maud Marsh's mother said that she asked Severino Klosowski first whether he was a widower, to which he said 'yes', and then whether he was the only one in the house, to which she said Severino Klosowski replied, 'All the upper part of the house is let to a family', to which Maud Marsh's mother said, 'Then she would not be alone' and Severino Klosowski replied, 'No'. she said that he told them that there was a man and his wife and children living upstairs.
She said that Severino Klosowski then told them that he would write for her character and then let them know, but added that he thought that Maud Marsh would suit and said that she was to come in on Thursday if her character was satisfactory.
Maud Marsh's mother said that they had a glass of bitter each whilst in the house and then went home.
She said that they had either a letter or a postcard soon after that stated that her character was satisfactory and asked that she come in on the Monday, not the Thursday, that being in August 1901. Maud Marsh then replied stating that she would be at the Monument on Monday between 7pm and 8pm.
Maud Marsh went and two days later she wrote a letter to her mother stating that she had arrived safely and that her luggage had also arrived, it having been sent on the day that she left the house.
She said that she got other letters from Maud Marsh in which she said that she liked the place and in her third or fourth letter told her that Severino Klosowski had given her a gold watch and chain, noting that that had been about a week after she had arrived there.
She said that she showed the letter to her husband and said, 'It seems funny he had given her that so soon, you had better go up and see her', to which he did on the following Sunday.
She said that her husband went to see Maud Marsh and that when he returned home he told her that it was quite true that she had been given the watch and chain and said that he had invited Severino Klosowski down the following Sunday.
She said that both Maud Marsh and Severino Klosowski came down on the Sunday on bicycles and when they were there she asked Maud Marsh about the present and said that she told him that it was alright. She said that she saw the watch and chain and noted that Maud Marsh also had two or three rings on then that she said Severino Klosowski had also given her.
Maud Marsh's mother said that she later received a letter from Maud Marsh to which she immediately wrote back and told her to come home at once if he did not leave her alone and that if she was uncomfortable to come home at once. She said that she then received another letter dated 12 September 1901 to which she said that she was glad that she was alright and invited Maud Marsh and Severino Klosowski to come down on the Sunday, noting that her father was in hospital at the time.
She said that they came down on the Sunday and Severino Klosowski asked how she was, but said that he did not say very much and no mention of marriage that day was made.
She said that Severino Klosowski later said that he would like to see her husband about being engaged to Maud Marsh and that Maud Marsh later told her that Severino Klosowski had given her some rings and had taken her out once or twice. She said that she asked Maud Marsh whether she was comfortable and said that Maud Marsh told her that she was and that Severino Klosowski was kind.
She said that Severino Klosowski told her that he liked Maud Marsh and would like to marry her and that he should go to the hospital to see how her husband was and take Maud Marsh as well. Maud Marsh's mother said that she told Severino Klosowski that she would be going to see her husband that afternoon and said that she would hear what he had to say about the engagement.
She said that she heard that they had been to see her husband in hospital.
Maud Marsh's mother said that they came to see her again at Outwood which she was looking after, at which time her husband was still in hospital . She said that they arrived in time for breakfast and that her other daughter and son were also there and that after they finished they said that they wanted to take her other daughter back with them which she consented to.
She said that whilst they were there that Severino Klosowski produced a will in Maud Marsh's favour and that she and her son signed it as witnesses to Severino Klosowski's signature which he put to it.
She said that she thought that by then that her husband had given his consent. She said that Severino Klosowski asked her and that she told him that both she and her husband had consented.
Maud Marsh's mother said that when they left that they took her other daughter with them and said that she told Maud Marsh before they left, 'Don't do anything underhanded, be sure and let us know when you are going to be married' and said that Maud Marsh replied, 'Very well mother I will let you know'.
Maud Marsh's mother said that she later received several letters from both of her daughters and that in one of them she was asked to come and see both of them, which would have been on 13 October 1901. She said that she went up by the 2.30pm train from West Croydon to the Monument, arriving a little after 3pm. She noted that she had a little girl of 15 with her. She said that when they arrived that she saw all this confetti outside and said that the little girl remarked that it looked as though there had been a wedding.
She said that her other daughter then came to let them in and that she then saw Maud Marsh and Severino Klosowski and said that her other daughter then said to her, 'Maude has been married this morning to Mr Chapman', which Maud Marsh then confirmed.
She said that they were having dinner at the time but noted that she had already by that time had her dinner but said that they asked her to drink to their health which she said they did.
She said that she then had a conversation with Maud Marsh who told her that they had been married in a Catholic Church in Bishopsgate and said that when she asked why they had not let them know that Maud Marsh said, 'Because George did not want any fuss'. She said that she then said, 'Well, you promised me and your father you would let me and your father know', to which Maud Marsh replied, 'George made up his mind in a minute and as you were coming up on Sunday I did not trouble to write'.
She said that she then asked Maud Marsh where the marriage certificate was and said that Maud Marsh told her that Severino Klosowski had got it. She noted that she did not ask Severino Klosowski for the certificate as she believed Maud Marsh. She said that Maud Marsh had told her that the marriage had taken place at a Roman Catholic Church or Chapel in Bishopgate Street. She noted that Maud Marsh's religion was Protestant, not Roman Catholic.
She said that after that that they all went out on the electric railway, saying that they went in the 'tuppeny tube', noting that she had never been before. She said that when they got back that she stayed and had tea and then went home.
Maud Marsh's mother said Maud Marsh and Severino Klosowski remained at the Monument for some weeks but that there was a fire at the monument and consequently they had to move and went to the Crown public house round the corner in Borough High Street. It was later suggested that the fire had been suspicious and that the insurance company refused to pay compensation. It was further noted that the lease had at that time been nearly out.
She said that they called upon her on the night before the fire 25 October 1901. Maud Marsh's mother said that Maud Marsh wrote to her whilst she was at the Monument before the fire saying that she had been ill for three days and very bad.
She said that after they moved to the Crown public house that Maud Marsh wrote to her married daughter and told her that she was ill which would have been about two months before her death around September 1902.
She said that her second daughter then took Maud Marshto Guys Hospital in August 1902 and that whilst she was there Maud Marsh wrote her a letter to let her know where she was. She said that whilst Maud Marsh was in Guy's hospital that she saw her three times noting that she was in there for about three weeks.
She said that when she asked Maud Marsh what the matter was that she said that she had constipation so bad and that her inside had come down and was inflamed and told her that it was owing to the straining.
She noted that she did not go to see Severino Klosowski as they were not on friendly terms.
Maud Marsh's mother said that about two months before her death that Maud Marsh wrote to one of her sisters stating that she was very ill and asked if she would come and see her, additionally asking her not to tell her (Maud Marsh's mother) as she would worry. She said that her daughter went to see Maud Marsh on the Saturday and stayed with her until the Monday.
She said that on the Monday her daughter told her that Maud Marsh was very ill indeed, but said that she had been unable to leave home then. She said then that her husband went to see Maud Marsh and when he returned told her that Maud Marsh was very bad and that he did not think that she would live a couple of days and that she wanted to see her.
She said that she went to see Maud Marsh on the Monday 20 October 1902 with her daughter and that when they arrived soon after noon she went up to Severino Klosowski, who shook her hand, and asked him 'How is Maude?' to which she said Severino Klosowski replied, 'No better'. He said that Severino Klosowski then invited her to go up and that she and her daughter went up to a second floor back bedroom. She said that when she went into the room that she saw Maud Marsh there with the nurse. She said that Maud Marsh was in bed very bad and that she asked her how she was and said that Maud Marsh told her that she was in very great pain across her stomach. She said that whilst they were there that Maud Marsh kept vomiting.
She said that Severino Klosowski came into the room several times and that Maud Marsh asked for a drink several times. She said that when Severino Klosowski came up that he would feel Maud Marsh's pulse. She said that when Maud Marsh asked for something to drink that either the nurse or Severino Klosowski brought it to her, noting that there was soda kept on the landing outside in ice. She said that Maud Marsh was given soda and brandy which she thought that Severino Klosowski brought in but said that she could not say who gave it to her. She noted that the nurse kept giving her pieces of ice and added that she also gave Maud Marsh some ice water once later on but said that Maud Marsh could keep nothing down.
She said that Maud Marsh's vomit was green, but said that she could not say what it smelt like.
She said that the nurse was there waiting on Maud Marsh and that hot towels were placed on her by herself and the nurse because she was in such pain after the last injection, noting that the nurse had told her that Severino Klosowski had injected food by the back passage.
She said that when the doctor arrived that she asked him if there was anything that could be done for Maud Marsh but said that he told her that he was at his wits end to know what to do. She said that Severino Klosowski came up with the doctor. but said that he didn't think that Severino Klosowski was present when she spoke to the doctor, noting that she thought that he had been outside at the time.
She said that she remained with Maud Marsh all night but said that the nurse went home. She said that her other daughter also stayed for an hour but that after she and the nurse left she was with Maud Marsh. She said that there was another bed in the room and that Severino Klosowski lay down on it in his clothes.
She said that when the doctor was there that he gave Maud Marsh an injection to be used by the back passage to make her sleep and said that Maud Marsh slept a little but kept vomiting and wanted a drink and said that she gave her a little watered brandy during the night.
She said that when she asked Maud Marsh what she thought had made her ill she told her that she thought that it was some rabbit that she had eaten. However, she said that she asked her whether Severino Klosowski had had the same and said that Maud Marsh told her that he had, along with the servant and all of them had not become ill. She noted that she didn't ask Severino Klosowski about the rabbit.
She said that she asked Severino Klosowski if she would have some gruel if she made it for her and said that the servant went for some fine oatmeal and milk and that she then made it herself in the kitchen. She said that Maud Marsh took a little but vomited directly afterwards, noting that it was all green what she vomited.
She noted that when Severino Klosowski came in that he used to take hold of her hand each time.
She said that the doctor came in about dinner time on 21 October 1902 and she asked him whether there was anything that he could do. She also said that she asked the doctor whether he would have any objection to her own doctor seeing Maud Marsh and said that the doctor told her that he would be very pleased to meet her doctor. She said that her doctor from 282 London Road arrived soon after and that the two doctors examined Maud Marsh together in the presence of both her and the nurse.
She said that she stayed with Maud Marsh that night but that the nurse left between 1am and 2am. She said that she attended Maud Marsh all night, noting that she only dozed and said that when she awoke she asked her for a drink. She said that Severino Klosowski was there in the room on a bed but that he left the room between 7am and 8am. She said that before he left that he looked at Maud Marsh and held her hand at about the wrist and then turned her over to make her comfortable.
She said that the nurse was not there at the time and so she sent the nurse to go and get her as Maud Marsh was not very well.
She added to that she was so sick herself that she had to leave the room herself.
She said that Severino Klosowski was with Maud Marsh then and sometimes the girl.
She said that the nurse came at about 8am and that Maud Marsh got worse and the vomiting stopped. She said that she then went down and told Severino Klosowski who came up and put his hand on her wrist again and that Maud Marsh then threw off her clothes and said, 'Take them all off, I'm going, good by George'.
She said that Maud Marsh died soon after, about 20 minutes after. She said that she then sent for Severino Klosowski who then closed her eyes and went out on to the landing and cried.
Maud Marsh's mother said that the two doctors then examined Maud Marsh and that her own doctor then told her that he would like to see her privately and said that he then told her something like, 'Your daughter has been poisoned, or is dying from poison', noting that she forgot the exact words. She said that she then asked him whether he thought it was the rabbit and said that her doctor said, 'No it was arsenic'.
Maud Marsh's mother said that she then telegraphed for her husband.
She said that when the original doctor arrived he had been surprised to hear that Maud Marsh was dead sating that whilst he did not think that she would have lasted 48 hours, it had only been 24 hours since he saw her.
After the doctor arrived Severino Klosowski came up and asked him for the certificate of death but said that she thought that the doctor told him that he did not feel justified in giving one at that time and said that Severino Klosowski then asked, 'Why not?', to which the doctor told Severino Klosowski that he did not know what Maud Marsh had died from. Severino Klosowski then said to the doctor, 'From exhaustion caused by inflammation of the bowels' to which the doctor asked, 'What caused the exhaustion?' to which Severino Klosowski replied, 'The continued vomiting and diarrhoea'.
Maud Marsh's mother said that she then suggested to the doctor that a post mortem examination should be made and that the doctor then told her that if she would agree to it that he would pay for all the expenses to which she said, 'Yes'.
Maud Marsh's mother stayed in the Crown public house noting that Severino Klosowski asked her to stay until after the funeral and that on Thursday 23 October 1902 that Maud Marsh's body was removed.
She said that on the Wednesday Maud Marsh died that he asked Severino Klosowski for Maud Marsh's clothes and said that he told her that she might have everything that belonged to her.
She said that she afterwards heard that Maud Marsh and Severino Klosowski were not married. She said that she was later told by a police inspector on the Saturday 25 November 1902 that they were not married in the presence of Severino Klosowski and that when she asked him, 'Didn't you marry her George?' Severino Klosowski replied, 'No'.
She said that Severino Klosowski was arrested on the Saturday and that she left the Crown public house the following day.
Maud Marsh's mother later noted that both of the doctors had been present when she had asked whether the rabbit was likely to have caused the illness and said that the main doctor said, 'You don't find arsenic in rabbit'.
Maud Marsh's married sister who lived with their parents in Croydon said that she used to visit Maud Marsh at the Monument public house from time to time and remembered her being in Guy's Hospital in July and August 1902. She said that on one occasion that she went to see Maud Marsh that she asked her to go to the crown public house to collect some clothes and that when she went there that Severino Klosowski told her that he would take them himself but not then. She said that she later stayed at the Crown public house while Severino Klosowski went to Guy's Hospital on his bicycle and that on one occasion he told her that Maud Marsh was suffering from constipation noting that Maud Marsh had told her that it was diarrhoea. She said that at the time she thought that it was funny and that she could not make it out.
She said that When she asked Severino Klosowski what he thought of Maud Marsh that he nodded his head and said, ''Very bad'.
She said that when she later saw Maud Marsh at the hospital that she asked her what the doctors thought and said that Maud Marsh said not so well. She said that she then also asked her, 'Are you really married to George?' as she had her suspicions as Maud Marsh had told her previously that she had not seen the certificate, but Maud Marsh reiterated that they had got married in a Roman Catholic Room and that Severino Klosowski had the certificate. She said that Maud Marsh then asked, 'Why?', and that she told her that it was funny because she has not seen the certificate and said that Maud Marsh replied, 'I am, so there'.
She said that Severino Klosowski said to her 'She should have done as I told her' and that when she asked him what that was he said, 'She should have took the medicine I give her'. Maud Marsh's sister said that she then said to Severino Klosowski, 'She never would take medicine' and that it was funny that the doctor could not find out what was the matter with her. She said that Severino Klosowski then said, 'I could give her a bit like that', whilst snapping his fingers, 'and fifty doctors would not find out'. She asked him, 'What do you mean?' but said that Severino Klosowski just walked away and said, 'Never mind'.
Maud Marsh's married sister said that she saw Maud Marsh on more than one occasion at the hospital and that she also saw her on the day that she left at the Crown public house but did not know what date. She said that Maud Marsh was sitting on a chair in the bar and appeared very ill. She said that she told her that she had no business there and made her go upstairs and Severino Klosowski do downstairs, noting that she could not go up by herself and that she had had to help her.
She said that one day in April 1902 she had been in Maud Marsh's bedroom at the Crown public house when she had picked up a ball syringe and asked Maud Marsh what she did with it and said that Maud Marsh replied, 'George used it'. She asked, 'On you?', and said that Maud Marsh replied, 'Yes'. She then asked her 'What for?' and said that Maud Marsh told her that she had been a fortnight over her time and that Severino Klosowski had used injections on her with the syringe. She said that she then picked up a bottle that was on the mantel and asked her, 'What's this?', and that that Maud Marsh replied, 'That's some of the stuff'. She noted that there were some frozen crystals in it. She said that she took the cork out and smelt it, saying that it smelt of carbolic. She said that Maud Marsh then said to her, 'Put it down he's coming'.
She said that Maud Marsh told her that Severino Klosowski had done it and that it had brought on flooding and that he had then used it again to stop the flooding. She said that she told her that she didn't think that it was right.
She said that after Maud Marsh came out of the hospital that they all had tea together, her, Maud Marsh and Severino Klosowski and that they had a conversation that went:
She said that Maud Marsh came over to her house in Dulwich on about 27 June 1902 and stayed for tea but had needed to go to the lavatory, noting that she had diarrhoea very bad. She said that once again after that she came over and had diarrhoea. She noted that Maud Marsh didn't say anything about having continued to use the syringe but said two or three times when she later visited that Maud Marsh had told her that Severino Klosowski had given her stuff to take.
She said that when she asked Maud Marsh what the stuff was for that she said, 'George does not want any children yet but after we get enough to live private I could have as many as I like them'. However, she said that she told her, 'Well, I would not take it'.
She said that she visited her subsequently, and that sometimes she found that she was well and sometimes unwell, but said that she was generally up but that on one or two occasions she found her lying down.
She said that she went to the Crown public house on a Tuesday and found her in bed and said, 'I have come over to take you out for a little, are you going?'. She said that Maud Marsh did not seem very well and that they went out for a ride on a tram down Streatham Hill. She said that it was getting late and that Maud Marsh started crying and she asked her what the matter was and Maud Marsh said to her, 'Look at the time how late'. Maud Marsh's married sister then said, 'What's the good of crying?', and Maud Marsh replied, 'Oh, you don't know what he is'. She then said to her, 'Well, has he hit you then?' and Maud Marsh replied, 'Yes, more than once'. She then asked how he hit her and Maud Marsh replied, 'He held my hair and banged my head'. Maud Marsh's sister then asked, 'Didn't you pay him back?' and Maud Marsh replied, 'Yes, I kicked him'. She said that they then went back to the Crown public house.
Maud Marsh's married sister said that she went back one or two weeks later but could not remember whether Maud Marsh had diarrhoea. She said that she then later went to see her
She said that she went to the Crown public house on 8 October 1902 and found her in the garden and found that she complained of diarrhoea and sickness but that she didn't know what the matter was.
She said that Maud Marsh said, 'Oh I have got that diarrhoea', and that she kept retching. She said that when she asked Maud Marsh what she thought it was she said, 'I don't know unless it was the rabbit I had'. She said that when she asked her whether it had made either Severino Klosowski or the servant ill, Maud Marsh replied, 'No'.
She said that Maud Marsh told her that she would like to go out to the New Cut and to see the Monument, the old house. She said that Maud Marsh told her that she was hungry and so she bought her some seed cake that she ate with a tomato and drank some lemonade. She said that they then went home and that she later left her there, telling her to write to her.
She said that she later got a letter from her on Saturday 11 October 1903 and in consequence went to see her and stayed with her until the Monday.
The letter had read, 'Just a line to say I am ill in bed and have not been up since Wednesday. I have had a doctor and he says I must have someone to stay with me'.
She said that when she saw her on the Saturday Maud Marsh was very bad and in bed and suffering from vomiting and diarrhoea. She said that when she asked Severino Klosowski how Maud Marsh was, he said, 'Very bad'.
She said that on the Sunday she gave her some Bovril which she prepared herself and which the servant brought up from downstairs adding that she had a small piece of toast with it. She said that she was not sick immediately afterwards, and that about half an hour later she gave her some draught ginger-beer that Severino Klosowski gave her from the bar and that Maud Marsh was sick after it.
She noted that Maud Marsh had brandy at different times which Severino Klosowski brought it up from downstairs and which was left on the safe by the side of the bed. She said that Maud Marsh was very thirsty and told her that her throat seemed to burn her. She noted that she didn't see Severino Klosowski bring up anything besides brandy.
She said that on the Saturday that Maud Marsh was too bad to take anything and that in fact, for some time, she did not know her. She said that on the Saturday evening Maud Marsh only had brandy and soda, noting that she kept on asking for it and that she kept on being sick. She said that on the Saturday evening she washed her and made her comfortable and that she then went home to get some things but was only away for about an hour and a half and said that when she returned that Maud Marsh did not know her.
She said that on the Sunday morning Maud Marsh vomited a little but seemed better up to dinner-time, noting that she sat up in bed and read a newspaper. She said that she brought green water up but saw no sign of the Bovril.
She said that for dinner Maud Marsh had pork, potatoes, greens, a piece of bread, and a glass of ginger-beer and that that meal stayed on her stomach and she remained in bed. She said that she stayed with her until 3.30pm or 4pm and that when she left she then appeared pretty well noting that she was propped up in bed, reading a newspaper.
She said that she didn't go out of the house but was out of her room for about an hour and a half leaving Severino Klosowski in the room with her and that when she came back she was very bad and quite helpless.
She said that before she went into her room she saw Severino Klosowski in the bar and said that he asked her if she was cold and she said, 'What do you mean? How is my sister?' and that Severino Klosowski said, 'I don't know, I will go and see'. She said that she then went up to her room and found her very bad and seemed so drowsified that she didn't know whether she saw her. She said that they just lifted her out of bed and back again, and she seemed to go to sleep.
She said that she sat in the room with her all the evening and that she complained of pain in her side and asked for drink and was given ginger-beer or brandy. She said that the brandy was brought from downstairs by Severino Klosowski and that during the evening he brought up a bottle of champagne and gave her some. She said that she stayed with her till between 1am or 2am, until after Severino Klosowsk had finished in the bar at which time he came upstairs. Maud Marsh's married sister said, 'Can I stay with her?', to which Severino Klosowski said, 'There is no need'. She then said, 'Will you call me if she is worse?' to which Severino Klosowski said, 'Very likely'. Maud Marsh's sister said that she then went upstairs to sleep in a room overhead.
She said that she didn't leave the house and saw Maud Marsh the following morning, saying that she seemed very drowsy and no better. She said that she had a little drop of tea but didn't remember whether she or the servant made it but said that she did not think that it agreed with her because she only drank half of it.
She said that the nurse was not there during those days and that she left Maud Marsh at 2pm and went home. She said that she later returned to the house on Monday 20 October 1902 and found Maud Marsh very bad, noting that she didn't speak to her. She noted that the nurse was there then. She said that Maud Marsh vomited during the day and had diarrhoea and was in great pain. She said that the vomit was green and that Maud Marsh could not take any food but was having injections but said that she did not see who gave them to her
She said that she later saw Severino Klosowski in the bar and asked him if he ought not to have another doctor to her, noting that her family doctor had been to see her when she and her mother were there and said that Severino Klosowski told her that he was at his wits' end to know what to give to her and that he had got the best doctor, and that if one could not do it fifty could not. She said that her mother said to Severino Klosowski, 'Don't you think you had better have another doctor?', and that as far as she can remember, Severino Klosowski said, 'No, it is no good.'.
Maud Marsh's married sister said that she left that evening, leaving her mother with Maud Marsh and that she never saw Maud Marsh alive again.
A woman that attended Maud Marsh for part of her illness and who had lived in Eltham Street, Borough said that she was not experienced in nursing but said that Severino Klosowski had asked her to attend to Maud Marsh. She said that she was in the Crown public house on 16 October 1902 when Severino Klosowski asked her and said that she asked, 'It depends what it is, is it a miss or is it a premature?', to which she said Severino Klosowski replied, 'No, nothing of the kind. She has been sick and the doctor has ordered her to have food injected'. The woman said that she then said, 'I do not understand anything of that kind, you want an experienced nurse', and that she then recommended an old lady who she brought along a little later. However, she said that when the old lady went upstairs with Severino Klosowski that she came down soon after and said that Maud Marsh wanted someone to be there altogether, which she could not do.
The woman said that she then went upstairs and saw Maud Marsh crying and said that when she asked her why she was crying Maud Marsh told her that if she could not get anyone to look after her that she would have to go to the hospital, which she didn't want to do. She said that she then said, 'I do not understand it, Mrs Chapman, but would you like me to look after you?' to which she said Maud Marsh replied, 'Yes, please, if you will'.
She said that she noted that Maud Marsh had been sick and said that she stayed with her that evening during which Maud Marsh drank a great quantity but said that everything she drank she vomited within a few minutes. She said that the vomit was green.
She said that Maud Marsh would chose anything she wanted to drink and that she would go to the foot of the stairs and ask the Severino Klosowski for it, and that he would give it to her. She said that at first she used to get water for her to drink from the tap, but that Severino Klosowski told her not to fetch any more, and that he would give her what she wanted in a jug from the tap in the bar. She said that he took the jug from her and filled it and brought it back. She said that from then everything she gave her was given to her by Severino Klosowski.
She said that Maud Marsh had diarrhoea that night, noting that it was green and said that she was taking no food through her mouth when she went there and that Severino Klosowski told her that Maud Marsh was being fed with a small syringe with an india-rubber thing with beef tea and egg and milk. She said that Severino Klosowski prepared the injections in the kitchen and administered them and brought them up into the bedroom in a half pint tumbler. She said that after he had given her the injections that he took the tumbler and the syringe and washed them himself. She said that the injections did not stay with Maud Marsh, but were back again quickly and she was in terrible pain.
She said that the doctor sent some medicine to be kept by the side of the bed, but that Maud Marsh never took any of it. She said it was in a little phial bottle and that Severino Klosowski took it into the kitchen with him and would bring it back when he came in with the injection. She said that she saw two partly full bottles of medicine with labels on them there and said that they remained there until after Maud Marsh died.
She said that when the attacks of diarrhoea came on that she had to help Maud Marsh out of bed. She said that she appeared to be in suffering and to go into a fit and that it was as much as she could manage to hold her as she was in such dreadful pain adding that her limbs would go stiff and that she complained frequently of thirst
She said that on 19 October 1902 that Maud Marsh told her that her throat was burning and that it seemed to be always burning.
She said that on 20 October 1902 that Severino Klosowski came in with this stethoscope in his hand and first pulled Maud Marsh's eyes down and examined her, and then undid her nightdress and put the stethoscope to her heart and listened. She said that she never saw him use the stethoscope on any other occasion and noted that there was nobody else there with her at the time.
She said that on 22 October 1902 that she went home about 1am but was later sent for about 7.45am. She said that when she saw Severino Klosowski she said, 'What is the matter, is she worse? and that Severino Klosowski said, 'No, the old mother is bad now'. She said that she asked, 'What is the matter with her?', and that he replied, 'Sickness and diarrhoea'. She said that she asked, 'What, two of them now?' and that he said, 'You had better go upstairs and tell her to get to bed out of your way the old cat'. She said that she then went up and Maud Marsh, noting that her arm about half-way up was the colour of port wine and that her face round her mouth was black.
She said that shortly after she got there that Severino Klosowski brought half a tumbler of brandy into the room into which she saw him put some water and give it to Maud Marsh to drink. She said that he nearly filled the tumbler with water which he got from a jug on the side of the safe. She said that Maud Marsh drank some of it and that shortly after Severino Klosowski had gone out she asked for another drink. She said that she picked up the brandy she had left but said that Maud Marsh said, 'No, no, no I', and she asked her 'What will you have, then? to which Maud Marsh said, 'Water'. She said that she gave her a drink of water and then said to Maud Marsh's mother, 'Perhaps it is too strong for her' and tasted the brandy herself and said that it burned her throat.
She said that she then went downstairs and took a cup from the dresser and cut a piece of bread and butter, and washed her mouth out to take the nasty taste away.
She noted that the day before she had had a conversation with Severino Klosowski about something she had overheard the other doctor say, stating that she had heard him tell Maud Marsh's mother that should anything happen he would go to the expense of having a post mortem examination himself. She said that when she told Severino Klosowski what she had heard that he said, 'That is her doings, she wants to have her cut about and show me up, the old cat. Be careful what you say to her, and take particular notice what she says to you, and in the course of conversation just ask her if there is anything wrong or any foul play'. She added that he never asked her afterwards if she had said anything.
She said that the day after Maud Marsh died she went into the Crown to see the body, but Severino Klosowski would not tell her if it was removed or not. She said that he later asked her, 'What colour was the motion you took from her?' and she said, 'What do you mean?' and he asked, 'Was it black?', and she said, 'No, green, just the same as she vomited'.
She said that she later went to the Crown public house again on the Friday and saw Severino Klosowski who she said asked her how much he was in her debt. She said that she asked him whether he satisfied with what she done for her and that he replied, 'Yes, perfectly, you done all you could for-her'. She then said '15s won't hurt you' and said that Severino Klosowski gave her £1. He then asked her if she could do some washing for him and she said, 'Yes' and that he then asked her to come in on the following Tuesday. She said that she then said, 'You ought to have had those things washed out before, Mr. Chapman, they will be getting nasty' and that he replied, 'I have destroyed them'. She said that he also added that he would not be giving her any rum to drink and when she asked why he said, 'Because you talk when you have rum'. She then told him, 'People ask me about Mrs. Chapman' to which Severino Klosowski said, 'Well, I don't want you to have anything to say' and she replied, 'Very well, if it is your wish I won't say anything. If they ask me no questions I won't tell them no lies'. She said that Severino Klosowski then said, 'That is right, I don't want you to say anything of what occurred upstairs'.
When she was cross-examined at the trial she said that she burnt her mouth with the rum about a couple of hours before Maud Marsh died. She said that when she saw the doctor after Maud Marsh died that she did not then tell him anything about it burning her mouth and added that she didn't tell Severino Klosowski either but said that she did tell Maud Marsh's father and later told the police although she didn't tell them about it in her first statement.
The doctor that had attended Maud Marsh had his practice at 221 New Kent Road and said that on 10 October 1902 at about 5pm that Severino Klosowski called at his surgery, which was about half-a-mile from the Crown public house and said he wanted a bottle of medicine for diarrhoea and vomiting, leading him to believe it was for his wife who he said had been at Guy's Hospital suffering from the same thing. He said that Maud Marsh was not his wife, but that she passed as such. He said that he gave him a bottle of medicine that included catachew, chalk, bismuth and opium and that when he called at the Crown public house the same evening about 10.30pm he found Maud Marsh in bed on the second floor.
He said that Severino Klosowski went into the room with him and that Maud Marsh told him that she was suffering from diarrhoea and vomiting, and had a great pain in the stomach. He said that he then examined her stomach and found that there was great pain and tenderness all over her abdomen and that he told her to continue taking the medicine he had sent, and said she was to have no solid food, but to go on a milk diet. He added that he also ordered her soda water and milk, boiled milk, brandy, beaf-tea and ice, saying that he ordered the ice to stop the sickness and noted that she had not complained of any great thirst then
He said that he then went to see her the next day but she was no better and that Severino Klosowski then told him that she had been treated at Guy's, but that they had not quite understood what the matter was with her there. He said that Maud Marsh then told him that they had told her that she had peritonitis and the doctor said that the symptoms she complained of would have been consistent with peritonitis.
He said that he saw her again next day Sunday Maud Marsh was very much better. He said he changed the medicine and gave her bismuth, morphia, and ipecacuanha, which was for the soothing of the stomach.
He said he saw her again on 13 October, at which time she was then as bad as ever, with continued diarrhoea and vomiting, noting that he saw them both as they were mixed together, noting that it was an ordinary yellow brown mixture.
He said that he saw her again on 14 October at which time she was no better and that on about the fifth day he noticed she had spasms, stating that they came on with great pain in the stomach, and that she had rigidity of the muscles of the leg, which passed off in about half a minute. However, he said that they did not synchronize with the sickness and that they came on independently. He said that on one occasion she had two in about five minutes and that he could not then form an opinion as to what caused them.
He said that he again saw her on 15 October at which time she was no better. He said that he asked Severino Klosowski if Maud Marsh was having the milk diet, and said that he lead him to believe that she was having all he ordered. He said that as she was very much worse on the 15 October that he stopped all food through the mouth except the bismuth powders noting that she could not even keep the medicine down, and ordered her to be fed by injections through the rectum. He said that she was to have egg, milk and beef tea as a mixture.
He said that he could not then form any opinion as to what she was suffering from and thought the symptoms might be those of gastro-enteritis, which was inflammation of the stomach and the bowels and that at that time he had not the slightest suspicion of any foul play.
He said that he suggested to Severino Klosowski that Maud Marsh should be taken to the hospital, but said that Maud Marsh objected and began to cry and that he then suggested a nurse. He said that when he found the following day that there was still not one there, that he spoke to Severino Klosowski about it who he said told him that he had tried to get one and that she would come in the following day.
He said that when he found that Maud Marsh could not retain the bismuth powders, which he said were to allay the irritation of the mucous membranes of the stomach, he stopped them and advised her to be fed entirely with the injection and got beef tea suppositories and told Severino Klosowski to give her everything iced.
He said that on the Friday he saw the nurse for the first time and gave her directions about the food and injections but said that he did not know whether she knew anything about giving injections. He noted that Severino Klosowski was there when he gave the nurse the instructions and said that he thought that the nurse was carrying out his directions.
He said that he called again on Saturday, 18 October and found Maud Marsh very bad, vomiting and with diarrhoea. He said that he saw the vomit which was was slimy and green, noting that he thought the green was due to the irritation of the stomach and gut.
He said that he did not think that he visited her on the Sunday, noting that he knew that he missed one day, which he thought was the Sunday and said that the next that he saw her after the Saturday that he found her much weaker and with the same symptoms. He said that he asked the nurse about the injections and that she told her that she did not even retain those. He said that he then told her that she ought to reduce them to half the quantity to try and see if she could retain any liquid. He noted that Severino Klosowski was there when he said that and that he had no idea that it was Severino Klosowski who was giving the injections.
He said that when he last saw Maud Marsh on the Tuesday that he had no reason to anticipate that she would die so soon.
He said that when he went to the Crown public house on the Wednesday that he found Maud Marsh's father there wiping his eyes. He said that he then went outside onto the landing with Severino Klosowski and told him that he would like a post mortem as he could not account for her cause of death and said that he replied, 'What use is it?'. He said that when he went back into the room and spoke to Maud Marsh's mother he told her that he wanted a post mortem as he could not account for her cause of death, Severino Klosowski said, 'diarrhoea and vomiting', however, when he asked Severino Klosowski what had caused the diarrhoea and vomiting he made no reply. He said that he told Severino Klosowski that he only wanted a private post mortem, just to satisfy himself as to what caused the diarrhoea and vomiting and then told him that he would make arrangements for the removal of the body to the mortuary and that he then went to the proper authorities and the mortuary keeper and that the body was removed early the following morning.
A mortuary attendant that lived in King's Place, Borough High Street and worked at the mortuary at Collier's Rents, Southwark said that on 22 October 1902, just before midnight, 11.50pm, he was called by the doctor to remove Maud Marsh's body from the Crown public house. He said that the doctor told him that it was a private case and not an inquest case and that he had seen a medical officer and got permission to take the body to the mortuary. He said that he got to the crown public house at about midnight and saw Severino Klosowski who he said knew what he had come about, saying that he said, 'You have come to remove the body to the mortuary'. He said that he asked Severino Klosowski who the undertaker was and said that Severino Klosowski gave him the name of a man in Southwark Bridge Road and then asked him to go and see him.
He said that Severino Klosowski told him that he wanted the body removed that night, but said that he told him ‘It is rather late I do not think the undertaker will be up but I will go and see'. He said that Severino Klosowski replied, 'Go and try and see what you can do and I will make it alright'. He said that he went to see the undertaker but said that the undertaker told him that all his men had gone and that he could not do it until the morning. He said that they then arranged to collect the body at 5am the following morning Thursday 23 October 1902.
He said that he went back to the Crown public house which was closed and found that Severino Klosowski was there waiting for him and that when he told him that the body would not be removed until 5am Severino Klosowski said, 'It is annoying, I wanted it moved that night'.
He said that he went away and the following morning went to see the undertaker's man at 5.30am and that at 6am they removed Maud Marsh's body to the mortuary in Colliers Rents at which time Severino Klosowski remarked to them that they were late. He said that as they were placing the body on the slab that Severino Klosowski appeared. He said that he then asked who the lady was and said that Severino Klosowski told him, 'Mrs Marsh', and that when he said, 'Who is the lady?', that Severino Klosowski said, 'It is my wife she is 20 years of age'.
He said that Severino Klosowski then asked him to arrange the burial, telling him that he would like her to be buried as quickly as possible and then told him that he had some friends that would like to view the body that night.
He said that between 3pm and 4pm that he went to see the doctor and told his servant that the body was removed and then later got a message saying that he would make a post mortem at 10.30pm on the Thursday.
He said that at about 10.40pm he saw several doctors at the mortuary and was present when they made the examination and saw the stomach and contents removed along with a portion of the liver and lower gut, the parts being put into glass jars.
He said that he later saw Severino Klosowski at the Crown public house and said that he asked him whether the body had been confined and told him that he wanted a quick burial and did not want any fuss and asked whether the body could be buried on Monday 27 October 1902.
The doctor that had attended Maud Marsh said that he communicated with a doctor who lived in Caledonian Road and the next day he got a telegram from the other doctor that had attended Maud Marsh and that on 21 October they carried out a post-mortem examination together. He said that he examined the liver, the kidneys, the lung and ovaries, which he said were all healthy as well as the intestines and the stomach externally but said that he could not arrive at any opinion as to the cause of death and that he did not see anything to account for the symptoms that caused her death.
He said that he had taken two glass bottles with him when he went to make the examination and had taken pains to see that they were chemically clean. He said that he removed the stomach and its contents from the body without opening it and tied it up and put it straight into one of the bottles. He said that he also removed portions of the rectum and the liver, and put them into the other bottle.
He noted that Maud Marsh had not been pregnant at the time of her death and that there were no traces of pregnancy or any affection of the womb.
He said that he took the bottles away himself and sealed them up, and the next day took them to a doctor at the Clinical Research Association.
He said that he later got a communication from the doctor in the evening, and then had a consultation with another doctor, and that as a result, in the early morning of Saturday, 25 October 1902 he communicated with the Police. He said that he also inquired for the Coroner's private address and immediately sent a communication to him, noting that that Saturday was the Royal Procession through South London and the Coroner's office was shut but later saw the Coroner's officer on the Monday.
The doctor said that he made up his own medicines and said that one of them that he had made for Maud Marsh had opium and water in it, as a sedative, for injection to relieve the pain in the rectum. He added that he did not put any antimony or tartar emetic into any of them and did not keep any antimony in his surgery and had not had any for ten years.
A Fellow of the Institute of Chemists and public Analyst for the Borough of Bermondsey who was a consulting chemist to the Clinical Research Association in Southwark Street said that he received two sealed jars from a doctor, one of them which contained a human stomach and a small piece of human liver and the other which contained the lower part of the bowel and some pieces of liver. He said that he had a conversation with the doctor and in consequence applied some tests in order to discover whether there was any arsenic present in the samples. He said that the stomach was tied at both ends, and that on opening it he found its contents contained from about 1½ to 1¾ ounces of a yellow gruel like fluid.
He said that he applied Reinsch's test to a small portion of it, that being a well known test for arsenic, and discovered that arsenic was present. He said that some slips of copper were used in the test and that they became a purple colour, indicating the probable presence of antimony in addition to arsenic. He said that he then communicated what he found to the docotr and then on Monday 27 October 1902 saw a police deective and in consequence subjected another portion of the contents of the stomach to Marsh's test, which was also a test for arsenic and antimony and said that he discovered both present by that test, and additionally found that there was far more antimony present than arsenic. He said that he then replaced the stomach in the first jar, and a part of it which he had used in his tests placed in a perfectly clean glass-stoppered bottle, and on 28 October 1902 handed all three jars to the Coroner's officer.
When the public analyst was cross-examined, he said that the violet deposit suggested antimony to him but said that it was not always a conclusive proof of its existence noting that other substances would hardly produce the same colour, but something which might be taken for it. He noted that he had not read the report of Pritchard's case in 1865. He added that he could not remember any other substance which would produce the same violet colour, noting that sometimes arsenic would come out and almost look like antimony.
The samples were later passed on to the official analysts to the Home Office who was also a lecturer on Forensic Medicine at Guy's Hospital and who had experience in analysis, particularly with reference to poisons and who had acted for the Home Office for 31 years on 30 October 1902.
He said that he attended St. George's Mortuary to make a post mortem examination on the body of Maud Marsh along with some other doctors, by which time the body had been dead fully eight days, although it was noted that there was not much decomposition, much less than might be expected in a body so long dead, considering the time and season.
He said that the scalp covering the skull was dry which indicated that there was little fluid in the tissues. He said that the skull and brain were normal and that there was no haemorrhage or disease in the brain and that the spinal cord was normal with no sign of disease. He said that the tongue was yellow, coated, and swollen, the air passages to the lungs were quite clear, and the lungs free from disease, and that there was a good deal of fat about the heart, but that would not have affected her health much, unless it had gone much further which it had invaded the muscles to the extent of about one-third and that the mesenteric glands were much swollen.
He noted that the stomach had been taken away, but that it was given to him by the coroner's officer before the end of the post mortem. He said that the blood vessels of the bowels were unusually red and injected with blood, but not to a very marked extent and that the mucous membrane of the bowels was swollen and slimy, and was in the condition which was generally known as sub-acute enteritis, which was an inflammation of the membrane lining the bowels.
He said that there was a good deal of liquid in the bowels, but only a little semi-solid faecal matter, which was about the sigmoid flexure of the colon and that one of the glands showed that she had probably been a person subjected to habitual constipation. He noted that the whole of the rectum had been removed. He said that he found no ulceration of the bowels and that when he examined the pancreas, the spleen, and the kidneys they were all sound and healthy. He noted that the liver had been detached, but that it was in the abdomen and a small portion had been removed. He said that it was rather dry and greasy, but that there was no condition that would have affected Maud Marsh's health materially.
He said that when he examined her womb and ovaries he found that they were perfectly normal and that she had never apparently borne a child and nor were there any signs that she had been far advanced in pregnancy. He noted that menstruation was just upon ceasing.
He said that he found no evidence of any natural disease that would have accounted for her death and suspected that she had died from some form of irritant poison which had set up enteritis.
He said that he had heard of the question of arsenical poisoning, but came to the conclusion on making the examination that it was not arsenic but some other metallic poison.
He said that he then removed the brain, some blood from the cavity of the chest, the spleen, the gall bladder, which was full of bile, the liver, the kidneys, the contents of the bowels, the bowels themselves, and also some blood from the abdominal cavity, noting they were all rather light in weight and that the drain on the fluid caused by the vomiting would account for that in a great measure and that on the 31 October 1902 he examined the stomach from the jar.
He said that there were signs of putrefaction externally and internally and that it was pink and injected with blood. He said that the blood vessels were prominent and redder than usual and internally it was coated with a good deal of yellow slimy mucus which became an orange colour at the bowel end. He said that he did not find any ulcers or loss of substance.
He said that he then examined the contents in the stomach and the portion of the liver and rectum from the jars and made an analysis of various parts of the body noting that every portion of the body that he examined had antimony in it.
He said that he found antimony in the stomach and its contents, in the bowels, and their contents, in the liver, bile, spleen, kidneys, the fluid which he took from the abdominal cavity, in the blood from the cavity of the chest, and in the brain.
He said that he also made tests for arsenical poison and found traces of arsenic in a small quantity, and formed the opinion that death had not resulted from it, noting that arsenic was sometimes found in antimony when it was impure.
He said that he then came to the conclusion that her death was caused by poisoning with antimony in a soluble form, which was tartar emetic or metallic antimony, noting that that was one of the scheduled poisons.
He noted that he didn't find any bismuth there, but said that the tests for bismuth were not so complete, but that if there was any that it must have been infinitesimal. He said that he had never heard in late years of a case where bismuth had caused such symptoms, or caused death and noted that bismuth was purified from arsenic and other impurities and that five grains was an ordinary dose, adding that in the cases that he had heard of where death was caused by bismuth he thought that 120 grains must have been taken. He added that he found no trace of impure bismuth.
He said that he found 0.23 grains of metallic antimony in the contents of the stomach, 5.99 grains in the contents of the bowels, which indicated to him that there must have been a large dose of antimony given within a few hours of death as it was soluble in water and had not been got rid of by purging or vomiting. He went on to note that in the liver he found 0.71 grains of metallic antimony, in the kidneys 0.14 grain, in the brain 0.17 grain and in all 7.24 grains, which was 7¼, the bulk of which was in the bowel.
He added that he deducted from that that there was a good deal more antimony in the body.
He said that antimony could be made soluble in the form of tartar emetic or emetic tartar, which was a white powder, soluble in water, noting that it did not change the appearance of the water.
He said that emetic tartar was not altogether antimony noting that 724 grains of metallic antimony would represent 2012 grains of tartar emetic, the proportion being roughly 3 to 1.
He said that he did not calculate the total amount of tartar emetic in the whole body, but said that from his experience that he would put it at between 25 and 30 grains.
He said that when tartar emetic or antimony was administered that as a rule the greater part of it was very quickly ejected, with purging relieving it and that the effect of the poison itself generally took a very considerable amount of time before it caused death.
He said that death had occurred in many cases where it was given in repeated moderate doses adding that vomiting and purging made people waste away with it producing gastro-enteritis and giving the appearance of death from failure of the heart. He said that antimony depressed the circulation and quickened the pulse, but itself had a very feeble power, noting that two grains of tartar emetic had been found to kill, but that that was not ordinary and put the ordinary fatal dose at probably about 15 grains, but said that even that might not be fatal if the greater portion of it was vomited. He said that people had taken cream of tartar in much larger quantities and had recovered when it had been quickly vomited.
He said that he was of the opinion that if two or three grains were given repeatedly to a healthy person that it would eventually cause death.
He said that when doses of antimony were given from time to time the symptoms were great depression, profuse perspiration, followed by nausea and vomiting and that purging was set up with pain in the abdomen, and usually after a time there was a burning or metallic sensation in the throat and stomach and a great thirst with spasms being quite common after which he said patients fell sometimes into a comatose or semi-comatose state. He said that they became generally very pallid, and sometimes got quite jaundiced, and dark under the eyes, and thin and worn noting that it was sometimes the appearance, apart from other symptoms, that indicated that a patient was approaching death noting that in the case of a certain man that it was his appearance that excited the suspicion that he would die.
He said that if tartar emetic was taken in a strong solution it had a somewhat metallic but sweetish taste, but that when taken diluted it did not have much taste, noting that it could be covered up by food or medicine.
He said that people took antimony wine, which was sherry with antimony in it, and did not know that anything was wrong.
He said that if doses had been going on for some time so as to set up irritation of the mucous membrane, that would set up the burning feeling in the throat.
He added that antimony could be dissolved and given by injections, or put into injections, but that that would be very dangerous saying that it would be quickly absorbed into the rectum and then into the body.
He said that the vomit in a case of poison by antimonial would be at first the contents of the stomach and then it would become green or yellow.
The analyst said that he had got a great number of bottles from the Sergeant and had examined them stating that there was antimony or arsenic in one of them. He said that some of them had contained photographic chemicals. He said that he examined the bismuth powders found in the room, that proved to have come from the doctor and said that they were free from antimony and arsenic. He said that he also examined the bismuth from the doctors’ surgery and found it to be pure and a very good specimen. When he examined the two medicine bottles he said that he found no trace of antimony or arsenic.
He said that when he examined one bottle that had had two or three drops at the bottom of it, noting that he did not know whether it had been washed out, that he found bismuth and antimony in it, noting that there was quite as much antimony as bismuth in it and enough antimony to give several full doses. He said that emetic tartar could be dissolved in water so as not to be apparent, and then could be mixed with a bismuth preparation. He noted that tartar emetic was also soluble in brandy observing that brandy of ordinary strength would take up about two grains to the ounce with a tablespoonful of such medicine being a full emetic dose, but noted that it was much more soluble in brandy and water than in plain brandy.
He concluded that he could find nothing to account for Maud Marsh's death except poison by antimony, noting by which he meant antimony administered for the purpose of poisoning.
On 25 October 1902 the police went to the Crown public house and saw Severino Klosowski. An inspector asked him, 'Are you Mr. Chapman?' to which he replied, 'Yes'. The inspector then said 'I wish to speak to you quietly', without explaining why and said that Severino Klosowski asked him to go into the parlour on the same floor. He said that he then said, 'I am inspector of police for this district. Maud Marsh, who has been living with you as your wife, has been poisoned with arsenic, and from the surrounding circumstances I shall take you to the police station while I make inquiries' to which Severino Klosowski replied, 'I know nothing about it. I do not know how she got the poison. She has been in Guy's Hospital for the same sort of sickness'.
The inspector then said, 'Before we go to the police station I am going to examine the bedroom where she died', to which he said Severino Klosowski made no reply but led him upstairs to the second floor back room where he took a key out of his pocket and let him in. The inspector then said to him, 'I am going to take possession of all medicine bottles'. He said that he then saw three medicine bottles on the floor by the fireplace that Severino Klosowski stooped down to pick up and give him. He said that he then said to Severino Klosowski, 'If you have any money in that safe you had better count it' to which Severino Klosowski replied, 'The safe is broken' and then produced a bunch of keys from his pocket and unlocked one of the small drawers in the chest of drawers, and took from it in coin and notes £268 10s.
The inspector said that there were some bottles in the room and that he then locked it up and left a sergeant outside the door and then took the key with him to the station along with Severino Klosowski where he was detained.
He said that later, at about 4pm, he returned to the Crown public house to find the sergeant still in charge and went back into the room and took possession of the bottles and some other articles and then went into the box-room on the other side of the passage where he found several boxes and other articles including three powders and some medical books.
He said that in the downstairs office he found a pocket book, a pharmacopea and two syringes along with a little book in Polish, some papers in Russian, a will, an American revolver in a case fully loaded and a number of photographic chemicals and bottles of various kinds. He said that he also found a number of papers and documents, amongst them a photograph of Bessie Taylor, some papers that related to the change from the Prince of Wales to the Grapes, from the Grapes to the Monument and from the Monument to the Crown as well as a typewritten letter from Biggs and Co dated 8 September 1902, to 'Mr. D. Chapman' at the Crown that stated that they regretted having been unable to find a customer and that in order to push matters forward they suggested advertisements being inserted in the daily papers which would no doubt effect a sale.
The inspector also found bills relating to the funeral of Elizabeth Spink and Bessie Taylor.
The inspector noted two entries in the pocket book:
The inspector said that on 25 October 1902 at 7pm he went into the charge room and said that Severino Klosowski asked him, 'Can I have bail?', to which he responded, 'No, I have not finished my enquiries yet, it is a very serious case of poisoning'. He said that Severino Klosowski then said, 'She did not die suddenly, if she had been poisoned she would have done'.
At about the same time Severino Klosowski asked another inspector, 'Can I speak to you a minute?', and then said, 'Your inspector brought some white powders in just now, which he said he had found on the drawers in the bedroom, has the doctor examined them yet?', to which the inspector replied, 'I do not know at present' after which Severino Klosowski said, 'I would not hurt her for the world. I have had a lot of trouble with my barmaids, but I took a great fancy to this one there was some jealousy lately, she said to me, I have been with you now twelve or thirteen months, and have not had a baby yet, if I do not soon have one, you won't have me with you long. Her sister would bring her baby with her sometimes, and after she had gone Maud would sit and cry for a long time'.
The inspector said that he had with him at that time three bismuth powders and said to Severino Klosowski, 'I found these three powders on the drawers in your bedroom' to which Severino Klosowski replied, 'The doctor sent them'. He said that he then told Severino Klosowski, 'I am going to see the doctor and finish my enquiries' and left him.
He said that he later saw him at 10.15pm and said, 'It is now my duty to charge you with the wilful murder of Maud Marsh by poisoning her with arsenic' to which Severino Klosowski replied, 'I am innocent, can I have bail?' to which he replied, 'No'.
The inspector said that Severino Klosowski was later brought up in front of the magistrate and remanded from time to time until 12 November 1902 when the case was commenced by the calling of evidence. He said that from that date up to the end of December Severino Klosowski was charged as George Chapman. However, the inspector said that in the meantime he had made enquiries and that on 31 December 1902 he charged him in the name of Severino Klosowski with the 'wilful murder of Mary Isabella Spink, otherwise Chapman, on December 25th, 1897, at the Prince of Wales'. He added that he also charged him with 'the wilful murder of Bessie Chapman, otherwise Taylor, on February 13th, 1901'
He said that when he told him of the name of Klosowski, and the charge was read over to him, that Severino Klosowski said, 'I do not know the other fellow and that in answer to the charge of murder he said, 'By what means, stabbing, shooting, or what?. He then said, 'The inspector will read the charge to you after he has taken it down' and that when it was written down and read over to him Severino Klosowski said, 'Who is the other fellow?' to which he replied, 'That is you, we call you Severino Klosowski, otherwise George Chapman'. He said that Severino Klosowski then said, 'I do not know anything about the other name'.
Severino Klosowski was convicted of murder on 19 March 1903 at the Old Bailey and sentenced to death.
Following his sentence it was reported that many people suspected that Severino Klosowski was in fact responsible for the 1888 London murders attributed to Jack the Ripper. However, there is much contemporary opinion against that although he is still listed as a prime suspect.
One particular commentator on the possibility was the retired Chief Detective Inspector of Scotalnd Yard, Frederick Abberline who was reported on 25 March 1903 as having expressed his belief in the Pall Mall Gazette that Severino Klosowski was Jack the Ripper.
Frederick Abberline had been one of the main detectives that investigated the Jack the Ripper murders although he had retired by 1903 and it was said that after hearing the evidence in Severino Klosowski's trial that he had become strongly impressed with the opinion that Severino Klosowski was Jack the Ripper.
He said, 'I have been so struck with the remarkable coincidences in the two series of murders that I have not been able to think of anything else for several days past, not, in fact, since the Attorney-General made his opening statement at the recent trial, and traced antecedents of Chapman before he came to this country in 1888. Since then the idea has taken full possession of me, and everything fits in and dovetails so well that I cannot help feeling that this is the man we struggled hard to capture fifteen years ago. My interest in the 'Ripper' cases was especially deep. I had for fourteen years previously been an inspector of police Whitechapel, but when the murders began I was at the central office at Scotland Yard. On the application of Superintendent Arnold I went back to the East End just before Annie Chapman was found mutilated, and as chief of the detective corps I gave up to the study of the cases. Many a time, even after we had carried our inquiries as far we could, and we made out no fewer than 1600 sets of papers respecting our investigations,instead of going home when I was duty, I used to patrol the district until four five o'clock in the morning, and, while keeping my eyes wide open for clues any kind, have many and many a time given those wretched homeless women, who were Jack the Ripper's special prey, fourpence or sixpence for shelter to get them away from the streets and out of harm's way. As I say there are a score of things which make one believe that Chapman is the man, and you must understand that we have never believed all those stories about Jack the Ripper being dead, that he was a lunatic, or anything of that kind. For instance, the date of the arrival in England coincides with the beginning of the series of murders in Whitechapel. There is coincidence, also in fact that the murders ceased in London when 'Chapman' went to America, while similar murders began to be perpetrated America after he landed there. The fact that he studied medicine and surgery in Russia before he came ever here is well established, and it's a curious note that the first series of murders was the work of an expert surgeon, while the recent poisoning cases were proved to done by man with more than an elementary knowledge of medicine. The story told by 'Chapman's' wife of the attempt to murder her with a long knife while in America is not to be ignored, but something else with regard to America is still more remarkable. While the Coroner was investigating one of the Whitechapel murders he told the jury a very queer story. You will remember that the divisional surgeon, who made the post-mortem examination, not only spoke of the skilfulness with which the knife had been used but stated that there was overwhelming evidence to show that the criminal had mutilated the body that he could possess himself of one of the organs. The Coroner, in commenting on this, said that he had been told by the sub-curator of the pathological museum connected with one of the great medical schools that some few months before an American had called upon him and asked him to procure a number of specimens. He stated his willingness give £20 for each. Although the strange visitor was told that his wish was impossible of fulfilment, he still urged his request. It was known that the request was repeated at another institution of similar character in London. The Coroner at the time said, ' Is it not possible that a knowledge of this demand may have inspired some abandoned wretch to possess himself the specimens? It seems beyond belief that such inhuman wickedness could enter into the mind of any man, but, unfortunately, our criminal annals prove that every crime is possible!'. It is a remarkable thing, that after the Whitechapel horrors America should have been the place where a similar kind of murder began, as though the miscreant had not fully supplied the demand of the American agent. There are many other things extremely remarkable. The fact that Klosowski when he came to reside in this country occupied a lodging in George Yard, Whitechapel Road, where the first murder was committed, is very curious, and the height the man and the peaked cap is said to have worn tallies with the descriptions I got of him. All agree, too, that he was a foreign-looking man, but that, of course, helped us little in a district so full foreigners as Whitechapel. One discrepancy only have I noted, and this is that the people who alleged that they saw Jack the Ripper at one time or another, state that he was man about 35 or 40 years of age. They, however, state that they only saw his back, and it is easy to misjudge age from a back view'.
It was further reported that Frederick Abberline altogether considered that the matter was quite beyond abstract speculation and coincidence, and believed the present situation afforded an opportunity of unraveling a web of crime such as no man living could appreciate in its extent and hideousness.
Following Severino Klosowski's execution, a bale of his and his wives belongings were put up for sale by auction at Newington Causewat on Thursday 11 June 1903. It was said that the lots included the contents of Maud Marsh's bedroom, a piano used by Severino Klosowski and his 'wives' articles of clothing worn by Severino Klosowski. It was reported that £120 was offered for the whole of the lots but that after an uproar the items were offered separately and sold at good prices, there being much competition.
see National Archives - CRIM 1/84, HO 144/680/101992
see Old Bailey Proceedings Online (www.oldbaileyonline.org, version 8.0, 25 July 2021), March 1903, trial of SEVERINO KLOSOWSKI (36) alias GEORGE CHAPMAN (t19030309-318).
see West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser - Thursday 19 March 1903
see Dundee Evening Telegraph - Friday 20 March 1903
see Dundee Courier - Saturday 13 December 1902
see Western Times - Tuesday 17 March 1903
see North Bucks Times and County Observer - Saturday 28 March 1903
see Eastern Daily Press - Saturday 13 June 1903
see Penny Illustrated Paper - Saturday 28 March 1903